COST 319 Estimation of pollutant emissions from transport

1. COST 319 objectives
2. Program of the COST 319 action
3. The MEET project
4. Outputs
5. Fields of application
6. Comments
7. Reports

7.1. Final reports

7.2. Specialized reports

7.2.1. Road emission factors and functions
7.2.2. Road traffic characteristics
7.2.3. Non-road emissions
7.2.4. Multi-modal aspects

8. Other links
9. Your comments on this web site


1. COST 319 objectives

In general terms, the estimation of the mobility-related emissions can be based on the equation E = e . a, where E is the amount of emission, e is the emission rate per unit of activity, and a is the amount of transport activity. This equation applies to every level, from a single engine to a whole fleet, from a single road to the whole of Europe or even more. In order to obtain an estimation of acceptable accuracy, the collaboration of a number of experts is required : experts on traffic engineering, to provide data on the mobility activity as well as on the nature and pattern of this activity, experts on engine and vehicle emissions, to provide proper emission rates, based on the mobility patterns.
Looking at the development and the evaluation of possible solutions, the number of experts required to co-operating increases. Indeed the orientation of the possible solutions and their promotion are additional important parameters of the problem, and the links and functional relationships between transport activities and activity-related emissions have to be determined.
The objectives are to co-ordinate research activities in the field of direct or indirect emissions of regulated and unregulated pollutants as well as fuel consumption or energy use by transport modes, i.e.:

  • To analyse the methods applied and the results obtained,
  • To make a synthesis of the available data and to develop appropriate tools,
  • To co-ordinate research.

For the first time the 4 transport modes (road, rail, air and sea) are considered together, as well as all levels of calculation, from local and instantaneous emissions to world-wide estimation.

2. Program of the COST 319 action

To fulfil these objectives, the COST 319 action "estimation of pollutant emissions from transport" was launched in May, 1993 for a period of 4 years and then 5.5 years, i.e. till October 1998. The corresponding "Memorandum of Understanding" was signed by 17 countries, members or not of the European Union (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom). It prolounges the work done in the frame of CORINAIR and COPERT, some years ago for the European Environmental Agency (http://www.eea.europa.eu/, or http://lat.eng.auth.gr/copert/).

The COST initiatives

The COST program ("European Co-operation in the Field of Scientific Research") is a Europe-wide program for the co-ordination of national research, managed by 25 signatory countries and the European Commission. The COST program typically addresses areas of research, where concerted action can bring benefit to the participating countries. With its emphasis on open participation, COST actively promotes the concept of "bottom-up working", the research areas being defined by the participants themselves. COST open and adaptable approach brings many advantages. It enables avoiding the duplication of effort, the sharing of results by all participating countries, the building of a scientific consensus and the efficient coverage of the complex field of European research, while allowing the individual countries to focus on problems of particular interest.

For more information see http://www.cordis.europa.eu/transport/home.html

The wide field covered by the action, as well as the large number of experts involved (more than 80 from 24 countries), imposed the formation of four main working groups, specialised in:

  • Road emission factors and functions : quantification of emission rates per unit of activity and studies of the factors that influence them (engine maps, instantaneous vehicle emissions, hot and cold average vehicle emissions, evaporations, alternative fuels, new vehicle technologies, life cycle emissions),
  • Road traffic characteristics : the operation of the road transport sector and how it is affected by technical, social, policy and economic factors (traffic management, driving behaviour, traffic composition, factor analysis and models of mobility),
  • Road inventory tools : study and evaluation of procedures to assess road transport's environmental impacts (bottom-up and top-down approaches),
  • Non-road transport : emission factors, traffic characteristics and inventorying tools specific to non-road transport (rail, sea and air transport).

Each main group has been further divided into sub-groups intended to meet when necessary: 22 sub-groups were working.

3. The MEET project

The researches analysed by the action are very numerous and are usually funded by national bodies, and sometimes by international ones. As a lot of synthesis works are needed for complying with the objectives of the action, a specific project covering partially the program of the action was being carried out by 16 of the participants. The European Commission under the transport RTD program as part of the 4th framework program is funding this project. The 3 main objectives of the project, called Methodologies for Estimating Air Pollutant Emissions from Transport ( MEET), are:

  • To provide a set of data and models, allowing various users of the project to calculate the pollutant emissions and the fuel or energy consumption of the various transport modes at strategic level.
  • To provide a comprehensive method of calculation using the set of data and models.
  • To make sure that this comprehensive method corresponds to the requirements of the potential users in terms of accuracy, simplicity and input data availability.

The project is now completed. It covers a large part of the action program, but does not cover the engine emission maps, neither the mobility (factor analysis and models), and develops only written methodologies, but no software package.

4. Outputs

The results obtained allow the development of a set of methodologies accepted by most of the European experts, which are presented here. The use of common methods to evaluate emissions and energy consumption levels all over Europe and possibly more widely will make the different studies and assessments comparable. Simultaneously the undertaken actions allow the participating laboratories to compare and co-ordinate their research methods, and the European countries to co-ordinate their research programs in order to fill in the knowledge gap.
In the frame of the COST 319 action and the MEET project - which is a part of it - a great number of reports were made, each of them being a synthesis of the European knowledge available, expressing a common opinion of the involved scientific circles. These reports are readable on this web site, and also partially at http://www.ulb.ac.be/ceese/
2 reports and a file present an overview of the work done:

  • The final inventory methodologies with all the necessary data concerning the emission factors and the traffic characteristics are presented in the final MEET report. The corresponding data are transferable from a specific file. The report and the data file allow any user to carry out an inventory.
  • The aims of the final COST report are quite different: it discusses the available data, their accuracy, it presents the synthesis methods and the assumptions; it should be considered as a scientific report, especially useful for whom interested in the building of methods of estimation of pollutant emissions from transport, rather than for users. In addition the report presents the scientific and user network, and finally the further research needs in the field covered by the action.

Then a loat of technical or specialized reports are presented, focussed on specific points, either for the road emission factors, the road traffic characteristics, or for the road and non-road emission tools.

5. Fields of application

The methods developed for calculating pollutant emissions and considered as the state of the art by the COST action, cover all the possible applications and all the users' needs. They range from calculations at a microscopic scale (for a sinhle vehicle, or for a street) to a macroscopic calculation (regional, national and global levels) through the inventory of an urban transport network.
In some cases, an absolute estimation of the vehicle emissions should be made, for instance for calculating input emission data for a physico-chemical model. But in most applications, a relative estimation is performed: e.g. when comparing two traffic types, or when calculating the impact of traffic light management or the emission evolution over the years.
Therefore the state of the art has been established considering various application types. Nevertheless homogeneity has not been reached for these various applications, depending on the aggregation level of the models and the transport modes. It can therefore be distinguished:

  • Disaggregated road models required in particular for assessing the impact of road vehicle speeds accurately. A comparative and critical analysis of the available models has been performed.
  • The basic emission models for road transport, based on a detailed fleet description, and on the taking into account of the kinematics through the average speed. They correspond to the major part of the recorded needs, discarding too macroscopic or microscopic calculations: a comprehensive model has been developed (M EET) and is presented in this report.
  • The aggregated, or simplified, road models, corresponding mainly to macroscopic uses, are not detailed in this paper. Simplified models should be calculated by simple integration of the basic model above presented.
  • Non-road models (air, rail, waterborne): a model is developed for each transport mode from currently available knowledge.>

Therefore the field of application covered in this report is wide and is liable to be of interest to most specialists and experts in the transport-related emission field.

6. Comments

If you have comments, remarks, some problems with the proposed methodology, or if you want to be in contact with the working group, please send them at Joumard R.
If you want get in contact with a laboratory or an expert involved in a report, please look at its web adresse, mail or email adresse indicated on this page or in the different reports.

7. Reports

Here are listed the main reports of the COST 319 / MEET working group. Some of them are available directly as PDF file, other are available by author's email. In addition the web adresses of the authors are indicated when available in order to have an overview of their organism.

7.1. Final reports

  • Joumard R. (1999): Methods of estimation of atmospheric emissions from transport: European scientist network and scientific state-of-the art. INRETS report, n° LTE 9901, Bron, France, 158 p.., and European Commission, DG Transport, n°EUR 18902, ISBN 92-828-6797-8, Luxembourg, 174 p
    Author's email : joumard@inrets.fr
    Author's site : http://www.inrets.fr
  • Hickman J. , D. Hassel, R. Joumard, Z. Samaras & S. Sorenson (1999): Methodology for calculating transport emissions and energy consumption. TRL report, n° PR/SE/491/98, Crowthorne, U.K., 362 p. ., and European Commission, DG VII, ISBN 92-828-6785-4, Luxembourg, 362 p.
    Hickman's email : imccrae@trl.co.uk
    European Commission. DG Transport site :http://cordis.europa.eu/transport/
  • Data for emission calculation.

7.2. Specialized reports

7.2.1. Road emission factors and functions

  • Hassel D . & F.J. Weber (1997): Gradient influence on emission and consumption behaviour of light and heavy duty vehicles. T ÜV Rheinland report, n°376013/09, Cologne, Germany, 22 p.
    Author's site : http://www.de.tuv.com
    Hassel's email : muelleb@de.tuv.com
  • Hickman A.J. (1997): Emission functions for heavy duty vehicles. TRL report, n°PR/SE/289/97, Crowthorne, U.K., 24 p.
    Author's email : imccrae@trl.co.uk
  • Rijkeboer R.C. (1997): Emission factors for mopeds and motorcycles. TNO report, n°97.OR.VM.31.1/RR, Delft, The Netherlands, 16 p.
    Author's email : rijkeboer@wt.tno.nl
  • Samaras Z. , T. Zachariadis & M. Aslanoglou (1997): Evaporative emissions. LAT report, n°9717, Thessaloniki, Greece, 37p.
    Author's site : http://vergina.eng.auth.gr/mech/lat/lat.html
    Smaras's email : zisis@eng.auth.gr
  • Samaras Z. & L. Ntziachristos (1998): Average hot emission factors for passenger cars and light duty trucks.LAT report, n°9811, Thessaloniki, Greece, 112 p.
  • Joumard R. & É. Sérié (1999): : Modelling of cold start emissions for passenger cars. INRETS report, LTE 9931, Bron, France, 86 p.
    Author's site : http://www.inrets.fr
    Author's email : joumard@inrets.fr
  • Sturm P.J. , P. Boulter, P. de Haan, R. Joumard, S. Hausberger, J. Hickmann, M. Keller, W. Niederle, L.Ntziachristos, C. Reiter, Z. Samaras, G. Schinagl, T. Schweizer & R. Pischinger (1998): Instantaneous emission data and their use in estimating passenger car emissions. VKM-THD Report, Vol. 74, Verlag der Techn. Univ. Graz, Graz, Austria, 42 p., ISBN 3-901351-24-8.
    Author's site : http://fvkma.tu-grac.at
    Author's email : sturm@vkmb.tu-graz.ac.at
  • Samaras Z ., R. Coffey, N. Kyriakis, G. Koufodimos, F.J. Weber, D. Hassel & R. Joumard (1998): Emission factors for future road vehicles. LAT report, n°9829, Thessaloniki, Greece, 108 p.
    Author's site : http://vergina.eng.auth.gr/mech/lat/lat.html
    Smaras's email : zisis@eng.auth.gr

7.2.2. Road traffic characteristics

  • André M. , U. Hammarström & I. Reynaud (1999): Driving statistics for the assessment of air pollutant emissions from road transport. INRETS report, LTE9906, Bron, France, 191 p.
    Author's site : http://www.inrets.fr
    Author's email : andre@inrets.fr
  • Gilson B., V. Favrel & W. Hecq (1997): Overview and Analysis of the links between "Models of Mobility" and "Models of Pollutant Emissions from Transport". Centre for Economic and Social Studies on the Environment, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, 48p.
    Author's site : http://www.ulb.ac.be/ceese
    Favrel's email : vfavrel@ulb.ac.be
  • Kyriakis N.A ., Z.C. Samaras & A.E. Andrias (1998): Road traffic composition. LAT report, n°9823, Thessaloniki, Greece, 144 p.
    Author's site : http://lat.eng.auth.gr/
    Kyriakis's email : nkyr@eng.auth.gr

7.2.3. Non-road emissions

  • Jorgensen M.W. & S.C. Sorenson (1997): Estimating emission from railway traffic. DTU report, n°ET-EO-97-03, Dept of Energy Eng., Lyngby, Denmark, 135 p.
    Sorenson's email : spencer.sorenson@et.dtu.dk
  • Kalivoda M.T. & M. Kudrna (1997): Methodologies for estimating emissions from air traffic. CEC DG VII contract ST-96-SC.204, Psia-Consult report, n° 95.106, Perchtoldsdorf, Austria, 90 p.
    Author's site : http://members.eunet.at/psia-consult
    Kalivoda's email: psia-consult@eunet.at
  • Trozzi C . & R. Vaccaro (1998): Methodologies for estimating air pollutant emissions from ships. TECHNE report, n° MEET RF98, Rome, 43 p.
    Author's email : MD3539@mclink.it
  • Kalivoda M.T ., M. Kudrna, P. Fitzgerald, B.H. Bek, S.C. Sorenson & C. Trozzi (1998): Future non-road emissions: summary. DTU report, Dept of Energy Eng., Lyngby, Denmark, 8 p.
  • Kalivoda M.T. , M. Kudrna & P. Fitzgerald (1998): Methodologies for estimating emissions from air traffic - Future emissions. Psia-Consult report, n¡ 97.177, Perchtoldsdorf, Austria, 42 p.
    Author's site : http://members.eunet.at/psia-consult
    Kalivoda's email: psia-consult@eunet.at
  • Bek B.H. & S.C. Sorenson (1998): Future emissions from railway traffic. DTU report, n¡ET-EO-98-02, Dept of Energy Eng., Lyngby, Denmark, 26 p
    Sorenson's email : spencer.sorenson@et.dtu.dk
  • Trozzi C. & R. Vaccaro (1998): Methodologies for estimating future air pollutant emissions from ships. Techne report, n¡ MEET RF98b, Rome, 32 p.
    Author's email : MD3539@mclink.it

7.2.4. Multi-modal aspects

  • Carriè L.& J. Noppe (1997): User requirements for the MEET project. ADEME report, Paris, 34 p
    Author's site : http://www.ademe.fr
    Noppe's emai : noppe@ademe.fr
  • Cox J.A . & A.J. Hickman (1998): Aggregated emission factors for road and rail transport. TRL report, n¡PR SE/493/98, Crowthorne, UK, 83 p.
    Cox's email : jcox@trl.co.uk
  • Keller M. & P. de Haan (1998): Intermodal comparisons of atmospheric pollutant emissions. Infras report, B75320-8, Bern, 71 p.
    Author's site : http://www.infras.ch
    Author's email : bern@infras.ch
  • Lewis C.A. (1997): Fuel and energy production emission factors. Etsu report, n¡R112, Didcot, U.K., 56 p.
    Author's site : http://www.aeat-env.com/
    Lewis's email : paul.davison@aeat.co.uk
  • Negrenti (1998): Consumption and emission models: results from action COST 319. Enea report, ERG SIRE, n¡RTI-98-19, Rome, 39 p.
    Author's email : negrenti@casaccia.enea.it

8. Other links

-UNECE/CLRTAP Task Force on Emission Inventories : http://tfeip-secretariat.org/unece.htm

- OECD/IPCC 2006 Guidelines: http://www.oecd.org/env/cc/tocinv.htm

-The ARTEMIS project (2000-2004) Assessment and reliability of transport emission models and inventory systems, funded by the European Commission within the 5th Framework Research Programme, is the next step in transport emission modelling in Europe after COST 319 and MEET, to be completed by 2004: http://www.trl.co.uk/artemis/

9. Your comments on this web site

If you have difficulties to download any report or to contact authors, please send a message with the title "problem on the COST319 web site" at joumard@inrets.fr .